This paper content :
- Concept of Research:
Meaning of research – Qualities of Worker-scientific method – Definition-stage of scientific study – Different step in scientific study – logical method – inductive and deductive method
– Nature of social phenomena and the use of scientific method.
- Meaning of Research
Research is compilation of data, statistics and facts on the subject to prove hypothesis created. It is a validated consolidation of data and information on a given subject to prove and correlate analogies in a scientific and systematic way.
Research is actually Re- search. It is not an invention or innovation. Searching for solutions, amongst the systematic data compilation, in a logical way. Depending on historical data and previous studies on the subject may not give a complete scenario hence primary data through interviews, direct surveys and actual counting is needed. Thus Active Research. Which keep up the pace with time is actual research.
Research is needed when a problem needs a solution. It is by and large for the society and for mass human activities and attitude. Human behavior includes economic activities, social activities and environmental activities. Finding a ways and means for better performance of such activities is Research.
Search conducted by individual or group of individuals in an set of environmental, logical and scientific method with proven or validated or authenticated data and information, is Research.
The research normally have self imposed discipline by creating methodology, hypothesis and research design. The outline, thus, work as boundary for the search work. The document becomes a research when the problem identified is proven on statement of hypothesis. Although, research conducted on a subject becomes factual documentary evidence, it can always be improved upon. Research never ends. It gives beginning and scope for further research.
A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttleworth – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.”
Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method. The primary purpose for basic research (as opposed to applied research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.1
A researcher must have acumen and indepth knowledge of the subject and known source of information. Good quality research can be produced by only person who knows to apply theorum of Research Methodology to the research work to produce a logical and scientifically proven organised research volumes.
A good researcher must have qualities like
- Well Informed
The out come of research solely depend on the person’s skills and acumen to judge and analyse the given data and its presentation. A statistical skill also be needed for a good research. Now a days, researcher depend on statisticians for data mining and data ware housing for a desired subject or topic.
Authoritative and alertness on subject gives a razor sharp study a birth from the hands of a good researcher. A good researcher is never satisfied by one or two sources. They always dig a little deeper to find the answers. They also can take the research and convey it in terms that a common person can understand. If you can no longer ask the question “what if “then you have the answer and no longer need to do research.2
2. Scientific Method :
Scientific research is an organised, objective, controlled, qualitative or quantitative empirical analysis of one or more variables.
Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.
2.2 Stages of Scientific Method
Kerlinger (2000) using definitions provided nearly a century ago by C.S. Peirce, discusses four approaches to finding answers.
- Authority and
In the method of tenacity follows the logic that something is true becuase it has always been true.
In the method of Intuition, a person assumes that something is true becuase it is “Self Evident”.
The method of authority promotes a belief in something becuase a trusted source, such as parents, news channel or a teacher say it is true.
The scientific method approaches learning as a series of small steps. The truth is found through a series of objective analysis.
Stages of scientific methods :
First Stage : Defining research study and need for the study. The medium of research. The medium itself have an interest for research. What is it? How does it work? What technology does it involve? The historic data and information on the subject. Need for research and research conducted previously on the same subject.
Second Stage : Research begins once the medium is developed. In this stage specific information is accumulated about the uses and the users of the medium. The developed subject line enhances the chance for further studies and research. The advancement to the original research and continuation to the research in succession.
Third Stage : Includes investigations of the social, psychological and physical effects of the subject. Quantifying the behaviour and occurrence of event or defining probability of occurrence. The process of Research.
Forth Stage : In this stage, Research is conducted to determine how the subject can improved, either in its use or through technological developments.
The stages are not linear, these can be conducted jointly and severally also without any formal steps. Research is a never ending process. In most instances a research project designed to answer one series of questions produces a new set of questions no one thought of before.
2.3 Different step in scientific study:
Select a Define a question
- Review existing research and Gather information and resources.
- Develop hypotheses or research
- Determining an appropriate methodology / research
- Collect relevant
- Analyze and interpret the
- Present the results in an appropriate
- Replicate the
Tenets of Scientific Method :
- Scientific research is public
- Science is
- Science is empirical
- Science is systematic and cumulative
- Science is predictive
3. Logical Method :
Logic is generally accepted to be formal, in that it aims to analyze and represent the form (or logical form) of any valid argument type. The form of an argument is displayed by representing its sentences in the formal grammar and symbolism of a logical language to make its content usable in formal inference. If one considers the notion of form to be too philosophically loaded, one could say that formalizing is nothing else than translating English sentences into the language of logic.
Logic models should assist projects in describing, planning, implementing, monitoring, and/or appraising a project in the most practical manner.
4. Deductive and Inductive Methods :
Deductive reasoning concerns what follows necessarily from given premises (if a, then b). However, inductive reasoning—the process of deriving a reliable generalization from observations—has sometimes been included in the study of logic. Correspondingly, we must distinguish between deductive validity and inductive validity (called “cogency”). An inference is deductively valid if and only if there is no possible situation in which all the premises are true but the conclusion false. An inductive argument can be neither valid nor invalid; its premises give only some degree of probability, but not certainty, to its conclusion.
Deductive reasoning, also called deductive logic, is reasoning which constructs or evaluates deductive arguments. Deductive arguments are attempts to show that a conclusion necessarily follows from a set of premises or hypotheses. A deductive argument is valid if the conclusion does follow necessarily from the premises, i.e., if the conclusion must be true provided that the premises are true. A deductive argument is sound if it is valid and its premises are true. Deductive arguments are valid or invalid, sound or unsound.
Deductive reasoning is a method of gaining knowledge. An example of a deductive argument:
- All men are mortal
- Socrates is a man
- Therefore, Socrates is mortal
The notion of deductive validity can be rigorously stated for systems of formal logic in terms of the well-understood notions of semantics. Inductive validity on the other hand requires us to define a reliable generalization of some set of observations. The task of providing this definition may be approached in various ways, some less formal than others; some of these definitions may use mathematical models of probability. For the most part this discussion of logic deals only with deductive logic.3
5. Nature of social phenomena and the use of scientific method.
The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in 1086, whilst some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to 1663 with the publication of John Graunt’s Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality. Social research began most intentionally, however, with the positivist philosophy of science in the 19th century.
In contemporary usage, “social research” is a relatively autonomous term, encompassing the work of practitioners from various disciplines which share in its aims and methods. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agents’ social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods originally rooted in classical sociology and statistical mathematics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, and market research.
Social research methods may be divided into two broad schools: Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims.
Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality
Social scientists will commonly combine quantitative and qualitative approaches as part of a multi-strategy design. Questionnaires, field-based data collection, archival database information and laboratory-based data collections are some of the measurement techniques used. It is noted the importance of measurement and analysis, focusing on the (difficult to achieve) goal of objective research or statistical hypothesis testing. A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed ‘mathematical modelling’ (also modeling). Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as ‘a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) which presents knowledge of that system in usable form’. Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.4
- Freshwater, , Sherwood, G. & Drury, V. (2006)